Images of Women as the Signifiers of the Soviet and National Identity in Estonian Socialist Realist Painting and Graphic Art
9−40; >Summary 41−45<
This article will look at changes in post-Second-World-war Estonian painting and graphic art, effected by the introduction of the socialist realist canon. Predominantly, it poses questions about representational transformations designed to construct the new identity of the Soviet Estonian woman, using the examples of the images of working women and of the ethnographic image of the nation-as-a-woman. The discussion of those images will concentrate on how different representations of femininity were utilised for the purposes of official visual propaganda, first of all. At the same time, one has to pay attention to how certain images of women continued to perpetuate − although to a lesser extent − old gender ideologies which in Estonian context could be also read as pro-national and anti-Soviet.
. Shared Authorship: Dispersal of the Artist in Electronic Fields
46−81; >Summary 82−84<
This article aims to describe the phenomenon of the sharing and dispersal of authorship in the new media as essentially belonging to the creative field. The development of authorship has cultural, historical and economic impetus, which has shaped the institution of authorship for hundreds of years. The revolt against authorship, originality, everything made with the author's own hands, is one of the features of 20th century art, perfectly realised in today's environment of the Internet and interactive art.
Must Good Art Be Liked? Discussion on Deontic Axiology
85−95; >Summary 96−99<
The reply to the question 'must good art be liked?' depends on axiological, psychological and deontic factors. An affirmative response assumes that decisions of goodness are logically independent of decisions of liking (the 'independence thesis' (IT)), and that liking is subject to deontic operations (e.g. obligation). An analysis of the fulfilment of these two conditions shows that the supporters of IT erroneously presume that the question could be solved without determining the type of value and the cause of liking. Robust subjectivism logically overturns IT. IT mistakenly presumes that category shifts maintain value criteria. Liking is subjected to deontic operations in the psychological, but not in the dispositional meaning of liking.
Jaak Tomberg, J�ri Lipping
. The Weak Messianic Power of Fiction: From Loss to Redemption
100−115; >Summary 116−118<
The article describes history as a tragic loss of historical possibilities and sees fiction as a vessel for a weak messianic power which regulates the virtual archive of "failed" historical possibilities and thereby constitutes historical reality. The article interprets Walter Benjamin's 'Theses on the Philosophy of History', relates them with the thoughts of Eric Santner, Maurice Blanchot, Jacques Derrida and Slavoj Žižek and describes the reconciliatory function of fiction through literary works by Christa Wolf and Mati Unt.