Special Issue 'On the History of Cultural Heritage and Conservation in Estonia'
Dedicated to the 100th birthday of Villem Raam
Edited by Anneli Randla
On the History of Cultural Heritage and Conservation in Estonia. Dedicated to the 100th birthday of Villem Raam. Anneli Randla
Hilkka Hiiop, Anneli Randla. Research and Restoration of the Medieval Murals in Estonian Churches
9−38; >Summary 39−43<
The aim of the current article is to give an overview of the research and restoration of the medieval murals in Estonian churches from the early 20th century to the present day. The focus is on the work of Viktor Filatov in the 1970s. The article also maps the needs and possibilities of further research and conservation.
Lilian Hansar. Plan Structure Typology of Old Estonian Towns in the 13th–17th Centuries
45−71; >Summary 72−77<
The current article examines the first two significant stages in the building history of old Estonian towns — the Middle Ages and the 'Swedish era' — more precisely the emergence and development of urban structures at that time. As only a few constructions forming building structures have survived from both periods, the article focuses on an analysis of plan structures, at the same time systematising historical maps, compiling a plan typology and the relevant street schemes. The aim of this research is to delineate the singular plan pattern of each heritage conservation area of an old town, highlighting the need to protect it, not just the visible parts but also the layers buried under cultural strata.
Riin Alatalu. Old Towns' Heritage Protection Zones in the Estonian SSR. Preservation of Old City Centres by Means of Total Protection
79−93; >Summary 94−97<
This article examines the advantages and drawbacks in the protection of historic town centres during the Soviet regime. The modern development of cities after the Second World War included demolition of historic quarters. As a reaction to this conservation areas were formed for protection of the historic city centres. The regulations applied to these areas gave the heritage conservation authorities control not only in the issues of protection of the listed buildings and areas but also over issues of city planning and new development. By the 1970s the heritage authorities had gained twofold reputation, firstly, as the preservers of the national identity and secondly, as the inhibitors to the developing society. The heritage authorities took over full responsibility for the development of the historic city centres. This monopoly gradually caused the increase of ignorance and irresponsibility among the architects and the general public towards the heritage values of the built environment. These tendencies can still be observed today.
Mariann Raisma. Legacy and Perestroika. Changes in Museums at the End of the 1980s and the Beginning of the 1990s
99−121; >Summary 122−124<
The second half of the 1980s and the first half of the 1990s was among the most cataclysmic periods in the history of museums in Estonia. The critical changes that occurred during the Baltic revolution also had an effect on the cultural sphere, which experienced major changes on the institutional, imagological and ideological levels. This article concentrates on problems of museums — how the meaning and role of memory institutions changed in society, the most important cultural and political steps in the area, and what the museums did to maintain their active position during the period of change. The architectural competitions organised during this period, as well as the problems associated with the construction of museum buildings, have not been covered in the article.
Jukka Jokilehto. The Complexity of Authenticity