2011/1–2 (20)


Jaak Kangilaski.
Additions to the Discussion of Post-colonialism
7–21; >Summary 22–25<

This article demonstrates that the Soviet occupation of Estonia can be discussed as colonisation. Since Estonia was the victim of colonisation, it is right to use the approach and the terminology of the theory of post-colonialism to explain the history of Estonian art. The colonial administration founded the institutions suitable for the subjugation of Estonian art and restricted it ideologically and administratively. Compensatory trends in Estonian art developed. One of the trends was based on prewar art, but also on the search for an authentic indigenous culture. The other trend tried to imitate Western avant-garde art. In the study of the Estonian art of the colonial period, it is important to consider its singularity.

Andres Kurg. Feedback Environment: Rethinking Art and Design Practices in Tallinn During the Early 1970s
26–50; >Summary 51–58<

This article studies artistic practices that emerged in Tallinn during the early 1970s from discourses and institutions associated with the course of Soviet modernisation and industrialisation: technological aesthetics and design, cybernetics and information theory. The article examines the role of graduates from the newly-opened department of industrial art in Tallinn who were also active participants in the artistic life of the period: Ando Keskküla, Sirje Runge and – closely associated with them – the architects Leonhard Lapin and Vilen Künnapu. The article considers how information theories from the 1960s contributed to the transformation of Soviet design discourse and how this was further appropriated by alternative art practices. It also discusses how this exchange with new theories and disciplines led to a redefinition of both the art object and human subjectivity. Finally, the article argues that this perspective enables the practices of these designers and artists to be viewed in the context of global processes associated with the demise of the disciplinary regime.

Mari Laanemets. Art Against Art. Rethinking the Role and Position of the Artist in Estonian Art in the 1970s
59–91; >Summary 92–97<

This article observes how the new understanding of art which was introduced at the end of the 1960s by pop art influenced groups was pursued and perhaps even radicalised in the second half of the 1970s, in a period generally referred to as the weakening of the avant-garde. The starting point for the analysis is the speech Leonhard Lapin gave at the last unofficial art exhibition, Event Harku ’75. Objects, Concepts, which promoted art as a means of creating a new living environment. Taking Lapin’s text as a framework, the author analyses the intervention in the official exhibition of monumental art in the following year. The pronounced interdisciplinarity is seen not as a compromise, but as a critical experiment to transform official art and its hierarchy, which leads to the suggestion of postponing the ‘death of the avant-garde’.

Kadri Semm. The Subjective Meaning of Milieu through the Example of Arne Maasik’s Atmospheric City Photography
98–113; >Summary 114–117<

The focus of this paper is the rediscovery of the subjective meaning of milieu through the example of the architectural photographer Arne Maasik’s city photography. In the article, the meaning of the phenomenological embodied terms ‘milieu’ and ‘atmosphere’ are studied, offering the opportunity to unite, in a useful way, interdisciplinary human geography and pictorial theories into landscape representation. The purpose is to point out embodied self-realisation in the milieu of the landscapes, highlighting the value of the subjective milieu approach for the planning practice of the heritage preservation-oriented milieu.

Marek Volt. How Can We Justify the Aesthetic Attitude?
118–129; >Summary 130–134<

This article looks at the question of the justification for the aesthetic attitude. Firstly, a distinction is made between external and internal justification of the aesthetic attitude. Secondly, epistemic, socialbiological, ethical, artistic, aesthetic and hedonistic justifications are distinguished and analysed in the internal justification context.

Kai Stahl. The Space of Culture and the Theme of Prostitution in Natalie Mei’s Drawings
135–154; >Summary 155–158<

Natalie Mei (1900–1975) was the only woman in the Estonian art field who dealt with and displayed the theme of prostitution in her oeuvre in the 1920s. Through feminist reading and applying Juri Lotman’s theorisations concerning the negotiation of borders between cultural and ‘non-cultural’ spheres, this article examines the ways in which Mei, in a few drawings, deviated from and challenged the dominance of the traditional patriarchal canon of the prostitution image.

Reet Rast. Animo grato vovit. Early Modern Epitaph Altars in Estonia
159–185; >Summary 186–190<

This article analyses Estonian ecclesiastical art in the period of transition from Roman Catholicism to Lutheranism. The role of the patronage of the landed nobility in furnishing churches and setting up altars between the late 16th century and the early 18th century is discussed. The noble family immortalised their name and memory by donating an altar, to which coats of arms and inscriptions were added, to a church. The portraits of the donors are featured on the altar of the Keila church; the existence of other portraits is not known. The main subject of the altarpieces under discussion in the Kärla, Keila, Vormsi, Märjamaa and Hanila churches is the Crucifixion. The layout of the altars was influenced by the work of Hans Vredeman de Vries and Cornelis Floris.

Jelena Pogosjan, Maria Smorzhevskihh-Smirnova. Peter I’s Icon from the St Nicholas Church in Tallinn: Iconography and Ideology
191–207; >Summary 208–211<

In 1711, the Governor of ‘Ingria, Korelia and Estlandia’, Prince Aleksandr Menshikov, commissioned an icon for the Church of St Nicholas of Myra, the oldest Russian Orthodox church in Tallinn (Reval). The icon was presented to Peter I at the time of the tsar’s first visit to Reval, the newly acquired Lutheran city. This article will focus on the historical and ideological meaning of The Liturgy of the Lord, the icon’s connection to the Russian imperial ideology of the period, and the strategies which were chosen by the icon painter to represent this ideology in the context of a newly conquered Lutheran city. The article also attempts to decipher the hidden message of the icon, which reflects the tsar’s very personal worries and anxieties regarding his relationship with Prince Menshikov and Peter’s upcoming marriage to his longtime mistress and the mother of his children, Catherine (Ekaterina) Alekseevna.


Mieke Bal.
Lugeda kunsti
Translated by Ingrid Ruudi


Anu Mänd. Chalice of the Finström Church in Åland – An Addition to Estonian Medieval Goldsmith’s Works
229–236; >Summary 237–238<


CHRONICLE 1. I – 31. XII 2010