2012/1–2 (21)

ARTICLES

Helen Bome.
Challenges of the Cistercians in the Figurative Corbels from Padise
PDF
7–32; >Summary 33–36<

The Cistercian monastery church located in Padise (Harju County) acquired its present shape in the fifteenth century. Apparently, parts of an earlier sanctuary were re-used here. The article focuses on two such corbels that are now located on the north wall. The corbels are covered with reliefs depicting animals, plants and human figures. Several adjustments to their iconography and its interpretation are proposed, and the circumstances of previous research discussed. The possible function of those images in the context of monastic life is also addressed.


Merike Kurisoo. ‘Was einstens Gott gegeben, auch fortan Gott bleiben sole…’ The Use and Adaptation of Catholic Ecclesiastical Art in Post-Reformation Tallinn
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37–67; >Summary 68–73<

The present article seeks to answer questions about the extent of the visual changes in the ecclesiastical space and the attitudes towards Catholic church art in 16thcentury Tallinn. Rearrangement of ecclesiastical space and issues in the use of church furnishings have been viewed by concentrating on the changes that took place in St Nicholas’ Church in Tallinn during the first post-Reformation century. The article focuses on the analysis of possibilities and practices of further using the church furnishings and income against the background of theological, political and economic changes, as well as developments in commissioning Lutheran church art.


Karin Hallas-Murula. Facade Plastics and Discussions of the ‘Percentage Law’ in Estonia in the 1930s
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74–103; >Summary 104–111<

In 2011 a ‘percentage law’ was adopted in Estonia. This law prescribes that one percent of the budget of public buildings must be used for art in order to enrich the public space aesthetically. Public discussions on this subject became active in Estonia in 2008: many articles were written, a large exhibition was organised and seminars held. The law was eventually applied in a different form than originally planned, but artists were pleased that it was finally adopted.


Kädi Talvoja. ‘Severe style’ in the Context of Soviet Studies
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112–129; >Summary 130–133<

The article addresses problems that emerge in the interpretation of the role and the art historical signification of the ‘severe style’ in the Estonian context. This phenomenon, which marked an important art innovation in the late 1950s, but which later acquired the status of official art in the Khrushchev period, reveals the need for more dynamic models of analysis than offered by the opposition of official and unofficial culture. Examining the ‘severe style’ in the wider context of Soviet studies, the problem of the artists’ agency is raised. Supported by the theoretical scheme offered by the researcher of late socialism Alexei Yurchak, the article describes, based on the example of Leili Muuga’s painting Sceptics (1957), the position and role of the ‘severe style’ in the changes in the Soviet discourse.


Anders Kurg. Noise Environment: Jüri Okas’s Reconstructions and Its Public Reception
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134–167; >Summary 168–175<

This article looks at Jüri Okas’s works on the environment, particularly his series Reconstructions (1974–1978) and the exhibition of that series in Tallinn Art Hall in 1976. Okas’s position is considered first by comparison with Leonhard Lapin’s work on the urban environment. Next, I consider discussions concerning the signification of the city and show that instead of a fixed relationship between places and their meanings, Okas presents the viewer with unstable relationships, deconstructing the urban signifieds. I argue that the reception of Okas’s images during the 1980s was influenced by their having been read formally, and find that the references of the images were incompatible with the prevailing forms and symbols which were at that time involved in efforts to construct a coherent national identity. I then interpret Okas’s perception of the environment via notions of entropy and noise – concepts applied in information theory, popular throughout the decade. In contrast to the idea of escape, which is often thought to characterise the works of so-called ‘unofficial’ or ‘non-conformist’ artists, Okas’s interest in the entropic or noisy environment presents a paradigmatic shift in which ambiguity and indeterminacy become understood as characteristic of a maximal state of information.


Triin Jerlei. An Era in Glass: Soviet Estonian Glass Factory Tarbeklaas and Finnish Glass Design
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176–187; >Summary 188–190<

The aim of this article is to analyse the production of the factory Tarbeklaas, mostly the theory behind it, and to discuss the extent to which the Estonian and Finnish glass industries were connected in the Soviet period. Despite the differences in background systems, it is possible to find parallels in the political intentions of design, as well as in the designs themselves and in the reception of glass design. The idea is to examine why similarities in design discourses arose in the different societies, what the differences and similarities were, and to compare objects as consequences of various social and political processes. This article will try to avoid both strict opposition and equation, instead using comparison of facts and theories as a method. Used sources include both articles and books, mostly by Estonian and Finnish authors, as well as the archives of the Tallinn University library and the Estonian Museum of Applied Arts and Design. The article is based on a master’s dissertation presented at the University of Brighton in 2010.


Ivar Sakk. Zhurnalnaya Roublennaya – The Austere Typeface of the Soviet Visual Image
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191–206; >Summary 207–211<

The article deals with the visual archaeology of the Soviet period. In the printed matter of the time, few typefaces were used; one of them was Zhurnalnaya roublennaya. The aim of the article is to investigate the ideological and aesthetic prototypes of the font against the background of the modernistic typefaces of the 20th century.


FOCUS

W. J. T. Mitchell.
Mida pildid tahavad?
Translated by Ingrid Ruudi
PDF
213–229


FINDINGS

Anu Mänd.
A Cat under the Bed. On a Motif in the Altarpieces by Hermen Rode and Bernt Notke in Tallinn
PDF
231–243; >Summary 244–246<


Anne Untera. Die Geschichte des Bildnisses von Barbara Juliane von Krüdener
247–260; >Summary 261–262<


REVIEWS
263–285


CHRONICLE 1. I – 31. XII 2011
287–292


AUTHORS
295