Eva Näripea. Towards an Apocalyptic Zero Point: Approaching Work in Post-Soviet Estonian Auteur Cinema
7–23; >Summary 24–29<
Drawing on David Harvey’s conceptualisation of neoliberalism as the accumulation of capital by dispossession, this article considers representations of work in Estonian auteur cinema of the last decade, in particular in Agent Wild Duck (Agent Sinikael, 2002, Marko Raat), Autumn Ball (Sügisball, 2007, Veiko Õunpuu), Temptations of St. Tony (Püha Tõnu kiusamine, 2009, Veiko Õunpuu) and Letters to Angel (Kirjad Inglile, 2011, Sulev Keedus). In different ways and from the perspectives of various types of labour (professional, working class, artistic etc.), these films criticise the hegemony of the free market philosophy and its characteristic processes that undermine, in the name of capital, public interests and the social and personal sense of security of workers, atomising society in all aspects.
Kristo Nurmis. Estonia and Estonians in German Propaganda Posters, 1941–1944
30–71; >Summary 72–78<
This article examines the visual representation of National Socialist rule in Estonia through the depiction of Estonia and Estonians in propaganda posters during the German occupation, 1941–1944. How and to what extent did the posters strive to address the local mentalities, myths and stereotypes, and how did the National Socialist ideological hegemony relate to that? I claim that, while during the first phase of the war poster propaganda concentrated predominantly on German colonial self-assertion, by the end of the war the regime granted Estonians far-reaching visual ethnic self-expression. The posters began to appeal to particular local identity constructions and aspirations during the war, and accordingly appropriated familiar iconographic markers and the style from the independence era, especially from the republic’s authoritarian years of 1934–1940.
Karin Nugis. Identity Construction in a Dialogue of Opposing Discourses: Estonian Crafts in the 1960s–1970s
79–97; >Summary 98–101<
This paper explores identity construction in Estonian crafts in the 1960s–1970s, during the ‘Thaw’ and official modernisation process. Based mainly on the criticism of the period, the paper analyses changes in approaches and follows the construction of a new identity for crafts, based not on functional but on artistic ambitions. The paper distinguishes two opposing discourses which shaped the identity of crafts: the ‘design discourse’ and ‘art discourse’. The development and functioning of both discourses was influenced by the classical canon of the hierarchy of the arts, as well as by the structure of local art institutions, art instruction and exhibition management. The author claims that, although in the 1970s the new artistic identity of crafts was widely accepted, paradoxically crafts were in a marginal position compared with fine arts and perceived their hierarchical inferiority as the ‘other’s other’.
Triin Ojari. Mediated Living Environments: Media Reflections of Modern Architecture. Coverage of the Topic of Architecture in the Estonian Media from the 1990s on
102–117; >Summary 118–122<
This article discusses how modern Estonian architecture, the living environment and urban planning have been covered in the media. Above all, it treats the question of how (if at all) the changes in architecture have been reflected in the press in the same period and, vice versa, how writing on architecture has constructed its object and subject matter.
Ants Hein. Chapel of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Viru-Nigula
123–150; >Summary 151–154<
The article analyses the Viru-Nigula (German, Maholm) Chapel of the Blessed Virgin Mary as probably one of the oldest sacral buildings in Estonia. The history of the church is not quite clear, but it is possible that it was erected on the southern border of the village of Koila (Kok¿l, Cokgele) in the early decades of the 13th century, and the initiators could have been Russian merchants who used the nearby Mahu harbour as their temporary stopover. The chapel certainly seems quite Russian; the closest prototype was perhaps the Church of St Paraskeva-Piatnitsa, funded by the same overseas or zamorskjie merchants in the marketplace in Veliky Novgorod in 1207. The chapel most likely stood in ruins in the 14th–15th centuries, but after the Russian-Livonian War in 1501–1503 it was rebuilt on the initiative of the Tallinn commander of the Livonian Order – this time as a chapel of victory, or of War-Mary, as it was popularly known. After the reformation it again fell into disrepair, but remained a place of worship amongst people at least until the early 18th century, when certain Russian features were still evident in its cult, as pilgrims arrived from Russia as well.
Jean-Luc Nancy. Pilt – eristuv
Translated by Anti Saar
Epp Annus. Love and the Image in Nancy and Lacan
167–179; >Summary 180–182<
This essay examines Nancy’s philosophy of the image through Lacan’s remarks about love. In L’Oscillation distinct, Nancy outlines a parallel between love and the image through their relationship to presence as lack. Starting from this comparison between the image and love through themes of lack and the temporality of lack, this essay will outline a symmetry between Nancy’s understanding of the image and his understanding of the self. Nancy’s elaborations on the force of the image and on the groundlessness of the image lead to the Lacanian agalma and to the Lacanian formulation ‘love is giving what one does not have’.
Robert Hughes. An Introduction to the Aesthetics of Jean-Luc Nancy (with Reflections on Estonian Landscape Images)
183–197; >Summary 198–200<
With special attention to landscape art, this overview explores Jean-Luc Nancy’s aesthetics in five theses: (1) The event of art involves shedding the everyday significations and conceptual framings that shut out the world and enclose the subject in solipsism, (2) Art locates the subject in the presentness of a singular sensuous event, (3) Art arouses intimations of the ground of the image as a ground of unpresented chaos, wildness, and indifference, (4) Art stages a real encounter with the world’s unsignifying indifference to human existence, and (5) Art exposes the subject as other to itself in the event of art.
CHRONICLE 1. I – 31. XII 2012