2015/3–4 (24)


Kersti Markus.
How to Propagate a Crusade Visually? The Danish Crusade in Estonia in the Late 12th Century and Early 13th Century in the Light of Sacral Architecture
7–44; >Summary 45–48<

The aim of the article is to analyse the construction of the round churches in Denmark in the context of the crusades against the Estonians. In the existing historiography of the Baltic Crusades, visual material has mainly played an illustrative role, whereas in the current article it is the chief source. The construction of the church of the Holy Sepulchre in Denmark and in the surrounding regions is primarily reflected in the political rhetoric of two Valdemars: the Great and the Conqueror. During the reign of Valdemar I (1157–1182), the main message of the round churches was to support the power of the new Christian elite, showing them as God’s elect, who had the mandate to rule. During the age of Valdemar II (1202–1241), the message seemed to acquire a more militaristic meaning, calling on people to fight for the faith.

Kerttu Palginõmm, Ivar Leimus. Der Marienaltar der Bruderschaft der Schwarzenhäupter vor dem Hintergrund des Wertes der abgebildeten Luxusgüter
49–81; >Summary 82–85<

Dieser in Zusammenarbeit von einer Kunsthistorikerin und eines Wirtschaftshistorikers verfasste Aufsatz konzentriert sich auf die Problematik des Preises und des Werts der Luxusgüter, die auf dem Marienaltar der Bruderschaft der Schwarzenhäupter in Reval/Tallinn auftreten. Besondere Aufmerksamkeit wird im Rahmen dieses Aufsatzes den Angaben über die Wertsachen und ihren Preisen in schriftlichen Quellen Livlands geschenkt. Bezüglich des einzelnen Beitrags der Autoren des Artikels sollte erwähnt werden, dass Kerttu Palginõmm Angaben zum Retabel, zu den Kosten der Luxusgegenstände und bezüglich des Schaffens des Meisters der Lucialegende zuzuschreiben sind. Aus Ivar Leimus Feder stammen die münzgeschichtliche Übersicht sowie Informationen zu Preisen von Kunstwerken und Luxusgütern in Livland.

Ants Hein. Late Medieval Tallinn (Reval) and St Olav’s Church
86–111; >Summary 112–114<

For medieval Europe, Livonia largely constituted a hinterland where the whole of Occidental architecture arrived as a kind of colonial art. As is typical of colonial arts in general, it had to adapt in Livonia, become simpler and more vulgar, especially as most local buildings were constructed under the supervision of master builders who were members of the indigenous people. The same happened here which occurred a bit later in many colonial countries in Asia, America and Africa: various European high styles were introduced, which in the hands of local masters were gradually contaminated to the extent that they resembled the originals only indirectly. The typical manner or school of construction of late medieval Tallinn is examined in the current article as a certain colonial style, and two large-scale construction projects in the early 15th century are analysed more thoroughly: the construction of a new chancel for St Olav’s Church, started in about 1420, and the considerable expansion of the nave of the same church in 1436–1450.

Kristina Jõekalda. Art History in Nineteenth-Century Estonia? Scholarly Endeavours in the Context of an Emerging Discipline
115–143; >Summary 144–149<

Looking at the professionalisation of art history in the Baltic provinces and particularly what is now Estonia, the paper seeks to analyse the relationship between ‘amateur’ and professional art historians, the disciplinary boundaries between history and art history, and the interrelations between academia and learned societies. At the University of Tartu, several institutional steps were taken, but how did these affect scholarly research on the local heritage of architecture that was born outside the university? I aim to discuss the criteria of scholarly art history, equivalent steps in German art history and the Baltic German authors’ awareness of these, for which the first monographs on the history of Baltic architecture, published beginning in the mid nineteenth century, serve as case studies. Particular attention is focused on the figure of Wilhelm Neumann, deemed the first professional art historian.

Virve Sarapik. How to Write Soviet Estonian Art History: Three Attempts, from Stalinism through the Khrushchev Thaw and Beyond
150–167; >Summary 168–172<

This paper aims to give an introduction to the Estonian art history writing of the Soviet era. Various influences defined the creation of Estonian art history as an ideologically appropriate and coherent narrative. The most significant of these highlighted in this paper are institutional aspects, the impact of local cultural tradition, and time: important shifts in ideological coercion and control mechanisms. An analysis of the relationships between the norms and deviations of Soviet-era Estonian art history writing is conducted mainly through comparison with the completion of various editions of the history of Estonian literature.

Indrek Rünkla. Architecture as a Practice of Articulation
173–188; >Summary 189–191<

This paper intends to describe the articulative activities exercised by architectural creative practice as a separate operation requiring specific skills. I posit architecture as a movement from a non-articulated state to an articulated one. For any contemporary architect constant articulation and re-articulation of the world into functionally operative units is a challenge that conceals opportunities and threats discussed in the article.


Sven-Olov Wallenstein.
Biopoliitika ja modernse arhitektuuri sünd
Translated by Ingrid Ruudi