2016/1–2 (25)

Special Issue ‘Visual Culture in Medieval Livonia’
Edited by Anneli Randla


Anneli Randla, Anu Mänd.
The State of Research on Medieval Visual Culture in Estonia and Latvia
7–19; >Summary 20–22<

This special issue of Studies on Art and Architecture is dedicated to the study of medieval visual culture of a historical region called Livonia (approximately corresponding to present-day Estonia and Latvia). The introductory paper gives a brief overview of the historiography and research projects of this topic in the two Baltic countries. The authors point out that, since the emergence of their nation-states in 1918, Estonian and Latvian scholars have often chosen to study medieval buildings and works of art in their own countries instead of analysing the entire region. Another problem which makes it difficult for scholars of both countries to share their research results is the language barrier. The extent of scholarly contacts has grown recently, mainly through international networks and due to the growing number of publications in English or German.

Ieva Ose. Research on Medieval Castles in Latvia: Achievements and Problems
23–42; >Summary 43–45<

This article is devoted to the medieval castle research in Latvia throughout the 20th century. In particular, the major archaeological excavations undertaken during the Soviet period in connection with the construction of the hydroelectric power stations are discussed and their results analysed. Over forty castles have been studied and over thirty conserved during the 20th and early 21st century. The most important outcomes of this research are given in the conclusion. The shortcomings of the present-day castle studies are also mentioned.

Kaur Alttoa. Hoarding in Carcassonne and Estonia??
47–67; >Summary 68–71<

The article is devoted to hoarding, a defensive element of the medieval fortifications which was first described by Viollet-le-Duc. The functionality of this feature is questioned in the case of the Carcassonne castle. Subsequently, the existence of hoardings in Estonian medieval castles is discussed. Examples range from castles and town walls to churches. A hypothesis is posed that in several cases the holes for scaffolding are misinterpreted as the traces of hoardings.

Agnese Bergholde-Wolf. Das mittelalterliche Ensemble des Doms zu Riga
73–98; >Summary 99–101<

Der vorliegende Beitrag untersucht die Entstehungsgeschichte des Rigaer Domensembles im 13. Jahrhundert. Das ambitionierte Bauprojekt, ursprünglich von dem Bischof Albert von Buxhövede begonnen, musste offenbar in seinem Verlauf unterbrochen werden. Die quellen- und stilkritischen Analysen führen zu dem Ergebnis, dass die Arbeiten am Bauwerk, der in seiner Anfangsphase unter westfälischem Einfluss stand, um die Mitte des 13. Jahrhunderts mit lokalen Mitteln und Ressourcen fortgesetzt wurde. Infolgedessen fügt sich das Rigaer Domensemble schließlich in einen weiten Kontext europäischer Einflüsse ein.

Anu Mänd. Altars of the Haapsalu, Tartu and Tallinn Cathedrals in the Middle Ages
103–134; >Summary 135–138<

The aim of the article is to analyse the medieval altars and chantries in three cathedrals – Haapsalu, Tartu and Tallinn. On the basis of written sources, it is possible to examine how many side altars are recorded, who their founders and later supporters were, to which saints they were dedicated, and what kind of liturgy was celebrated there. The locations of the side altars reflects not only the religious needs of the time but also social hierarhies. All three cathedrals were different from one another in size and spatial structure and thus offered different possibilities for the foundation of new altars. It will also be discussed how long the side altars continued to exist in the cathedrals after the Reformation, because, unlike the parish churches, the cathedrals remained Catholic for several decades after the introduction of the evangelical faith. The article first surveys the information from the documentary sources and thereafter analyses the surviving mensas and works of art connected to the former altars.

Anneli Randla, Hilkka Hiiop. New Finds of Church Murals in Estonia
139–179; >Summary 180–183<

The first article by the distinguished art historian Villem Raam on medieval wall paintings was published in 1966. The current article analyses his views in the light of present research situation. In the main part of the article the context is widened by the introduction and discussion of the recent finds of medieval murals in Estonian rural churches. On this basis a preliminary typology of the church murals from the earliest examples to the early modern era is drawn. In conclusion the further research perspective of the murals is presented.


Meenutusi kahest raamatust. Kaur Alttoa

A New Bridge. Tiina-Mall Kreem

CHRONICLE 1. I – 31. XII 2015