Special Issue 'Classicism'
Edited by Juhan Maiste
Classicism and Truth. Juhan Maiste
7−11; >Summary 12−13<
Kadi Polli. Über Klassizismus als Stilbegriff in der Bildenden Kunst
17−34; >Summary 35−38<
This article 'Classicism as a notion of style in figurative art' discusses the usage of the style notion 'classicism' as a general denominator in art at the turn of the 18th−19th centuries and emphasises the enlightening character of the period. Taking landscape painting as an example, the author examines Baltic art at the turn of the centuries. Baltic art's dilettante, true-to nature qualities, which valued local heritage and sights, perfectly correspond to the European idea of enlightenment, but do not quite reach the high definitions of classicism.
Krista Kodres. Place of Worship as a Temple and Regulated Structure. A. W. Hupel as an Architectural Appraiser
39−51; >Summary 52−55<
This article analyses the architectural ideals of the pastor August Wilhlem Hupel (1737−1819), a prominent representative of Livonian enlightenment, in their connections with historical-theological and aesthetic notions of architecture. Hupel did not emphasise Martin Luther's idea of the church as a space regulated according to social status; instead he preferred the requirements of architectural order and clarity that rely on the normative aesthetics of classicism and embody gute Geschmack. The temple fa�ade of Vaivara church, built in 1775−1777 (destroyed in 1944), exactly corresponds to both the theological symbolism as well as the architectural ideal of the era, being the first of its kind in Estonia.
Epi Tohvri. About the Expression of Masonic Ideas in the Estonian Architecture Scene in the Late 18th and Early 19th Centuries
56−82; >Summary 83−86<
Connection between Freemasonry and Palladianism. Iconography between Freemasonry and architecture. Dessau Philantropin school and impact on Estonian and Livonia manor culture and on park design. Typical portrait of a Freemason of the Enlightenment era − Otto Friedrich von Pistohlkors and his Palladianistic manor house Rutikvere.
Mariann Raisma. Musée ideale. Dreaming of a Perfect Museum
87−107; >Summary 108−110<
Mass musealisation of our heritage, where museums represent just one of the outputs, began during the Enlightenment. This work discusses the 18th−19th century dream of a perfect museum on three levels: in form or architecture, in the context of the museum collection's entirety, and from the viewpoint of heritage availability. Reflections of these ideas can be seen in the heritage culture of both the previous century and the current.
Mart Kivimäe. Von Winckelmann zu Marx und Engels. Kulturelle Toleranz als ein Problem der Üsthetischen Beziehungen zwischen Klassizismus und Historismus: der Fall Lifschitz
111−155; >Summary 156−158<
This article 'From Winckelmann to Marx and Engels: Cultural tolerance as a problem of aesthetic relations between historicism and classicism: the case of Lifshits' examines a significant aesthetic dimension of the neo-Marxist politics of history, the struggle against historical relativism (the 'eclecticist pluralism') in the modern treatment of art and culture. The author focuses on the Marxism on 'classicistic grounds' of Mikhail Lifshits (1905−1983), primarily on his reception of Winckelmann and its aesthetic and political contexts. In his primarily historicist-theoretical approach, the author presents well-justified criticism of Lifshits, and also stresses the historiographic need for a more objective picture of Lifshits, including his relations with the leading Marxist aesthetician György Lukács (1885−1971), who became his friend. This is a critical examination focusing on Stalinist-era Russia, which influenced the Baltic culture of remembrance, where the names of Winckelmann and Lifshits remain connected as a sign of a historical period of aesthetics.
CHRONICLE 1. I − 31. XII 2007